Big Game Species
Argentina has a long list of big game species. The one below covers most of the species allowed to hunt in this country. Very much of them can be shot in our ranches of La Pampa and Patagonia. Some other are available in other regions where we exceptionally operate over request.
Native species such as puma, capybara, peccaries and brocket deer have exportation restrictions.
There are many other Argentinean species not shown below because they are protected by law and Argentina Big Hunting strongly support and respect all wildlife regulations against hunting of endangered animals.
Red deer also known as red stag, it is another exotic species brought to Argentina with hunting purposes.
This variety of deer was introduced into our territory from Europe in the beginning of the twentieth century, first inhabiting the region of the caldén (native tree) woodlands in the Province of La Pampa. A few years later he was taken to the woods in the Andes, now being well adapted to that new region of the mountain. It is also found in several spots in the geography of this vast country where it was successfully introduced.
With an impressive figure, its size can be larger than one meter and a half up to the shoulders, it has a wide chest, slender and strong legs and in the case of the stags big antlers that shed every year starting around August.
According to the European measurement rules (CIC) the quality of the trophy is measured by the quantity of the points, length and thickness of the antlers, symmetry of them, total weight of the head, etc. but we rather measure them according to the SCI system which is basically based in the addition of inches of all the tines. Its skin is dun reddish in summer and more grayish in winter. It can easily weigh more than 300 pounds and with special diets it can reach over 500. The hinds, of a lesser magnitude and weight than the stags, do not have antlers, but offer the hunter a meat with an excellent taste, low fat and rich in proteins, thus being an appreciated prey.
This kind of deer is used to live in the protection of the bush or woods where they find the best environment for them,
They have night habits, great agility to jump and speed to run, they also like visiting water holes to bath himself in the water or mud.
Most of the year the stags live separately from the hinds but in March and April, when the hinds are in heat in the Southern Hemisphere, the stags and hinds get back together and then the "brama" happens, as it is called in Argentina, a term equivalent to "roaring". This sexual call which takes place during matting season basically consists of a profound, powerful and prolonged bellowing with which it can be chased in the density of La Pampa’s scrublands or in the heights of the mountains. The old stags, which are the ones who become sexually active first, form their harems and impregnate the hinds which, after 40 weeks, give birth to one or two fawns.
The hunt of this species is done in the early hours of the morning or at dusk. The hunter looks for a strategic spot where he can hear the stags' roaring and, following the sounds that they produce, he approaches his selected trophy. In Argentina still hunting at night helped by the moonlight is allowed, where the hunter lies in wait for an animal in a water hole or feeding area previously established.
Shooting distance average: 150 yards. Adequate caliber: 30.06 Springfield, 7 mm Rem Mag., 300 Win Mag., 338 Win Mag.
The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex), also known as the steinbock or bouquetin, is a species of wild goat that lives in the mountains of the European Alps. It is a sexually dimorphic species with larger males who carry larger, curved horns. The coat color is typically brownish grey. Alpine ibex tend to live in steep, rough terrain above the snow line.
Compared with other members of its genus, the Alpine ibex has a short, broad head and a duller coat. It has brownish grey hair over most of the body, a pale abdomen and slightly darker markings on the chin and throat and in a stripe along the back. They molt twice a year, firstly in April or May, and then again in September, when they replace the short summer coat with thicker hair and a woolly undercoat. As with all goats, males have beards, while females do not.
Males commonly grow to a height of 90 to 101 centimeters (35 to 40 in) at the withers, with a body length of 149 to 171 centimeters (59 to 67 in) and weigh from 67 to 117 kilograms (148 to 258 lb.). Females are noticeably smaller, with a shoulder height of 73 to 84 centimeters (29 to 33 in), a body length of 121 to 141 centimeters (48 to 56 in), and a weight of 17 to 32 kilograms (37 to 71 lb.). Both male and female Alpine ibexes have large, backwards-curving, horns with numerous ridges along their length. At 69 to 98 centimeters (27 to 39 in), those of the males are substantially larger than those of females, which reach only 18 to 35 centimeters (7.1 to 13.8 in) in length.
They are also social, although adult males and females segregate for most of the year, coming together only to mate. Four distinct groups exist; adult male groups, female-offspring groups, groups of young individuals, and mixed sex groups. During the breeding season, males fight for access to females and use their long horns in agonistic behaviors. After being extirpated from most areas by the 19th century, the Alpine ibex was reintroduced to parts of its historical range and in Patagonia mountains where they found the perfect habitat.
Alpine ibexes are strictly herbivorous, with over half of their diet consisting of grasses, and the remainder being a mixture of moss, flowers, leaves, and twigs. If leaves and shoots are out of reach, they often stand on their rear legs to reach this food. Grass genera that are the most commonly eaten are Agrostis, Avena, Calamagrostis, Festuca, Phleum, Poa, Sesleria and Trisetum The climbing ability of the Alpine ibex is such that it has been observed standing on the sheer face of a dam, where it licks the stonework to obtain mineral salts.
The breeding season starts in December, and typically lasts around six weeks. During this time, male herds break up into smaller groups that search for females. The rut takes place in two phases. In the first phase, the male groups interact with the females who are all in oestrous. The higher the male's rank, the closer he can get to a female. Males perform courtship displays. In the second phase of the rut, one male separates from his group to follow an individual female. He displays to her and guards her from other males. Before copulation, the female moves her tail and courtship becomes more intensive. They copulate and then he rejoins his group and reverts to the first phase. Gestation lasts around 167 days, and results in the birth of one or two kids, with twins making up about 20% of births. Alpine ibex reach sexual maturity at eighteen months, but females do not reach their maximum body size for five to six years, and males not for nine to eleven years. The horns grow throughout life, growing most rapidly during the second year of life, and thereafter by about 8 centimeters (3.1 in) a year, eventually slowing to half that rate once the animal reaches ten years of age. Alpine ibex live for up to nineteen years in the wild.
The axis or cheetal (Axis axis), deer also known as chital deer or spotted deer, is a deer which commonly inhabits wooded regions of India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and in small numbers in Pakistan. They were also introduced in South America for hunting purposes being very abundant in Argentina and Uruguay. They were also introduced in the Hawain Islands and in Texas, USA. The axis goes by various names in India, among which include: chital horin in Bengali, thith muwa in Sinhalese, jinke in Kannada, pulli maan in Tamil and Malayalam, jinkain Telugu, phutuki horin in Assamese, haran/harin in Marathi, and hiran in Hindi/Urdu (the latter two derived from harini, the Sanskrit cognate for 'deer'). It is the most common deer species in Indian forests. The name chital comes from the Bengali word chitral(চিত্রল)/chitra, which means "spotted". The axis (or chital) is monotypic within the genus Axis, but this genus has also included three species that now are placed in Hyelaphus based on genetic evidence.
The axis's coat is pinkish fawn, marked with white spots, and its underparts are also white. Its antlers, which it sheds annually, are usually three-pronged and curve in a lyre shape and may extend to 75 cm (2.5 ft). Compared to the hog deer, its close relative, the chital has a more cursorial build. It also has a more advanced morphology with antler pedicles being proportionally short and its auditory bullae being smaller. It also has large nares. The male chital averages about 90 cm (35 in) tall at the shoulder, with a total length of 170 cm (67 in), including a 20 cm (7.9 in). Males, at a typical weight of 30 to 75 kg (66 to 165 lb.), are somewhat larger than females, at 25 to 45 kg (55 to 99 lb.). Exceptionally large males can weigh up to 98 to 110 kg (216 to 243 lb). Their lifespans are around 8–14 years.
Chital have well-developed preorbital glands which have hairs that are like stiff little branches. They also have well-developed metatarsal glands and pedal glands on their hind legs. Males have larger preorbital glands than females and are opened very often in response to certain stimuli.
Axis deer are primarily grazers and feed on short, sprouting grasses. However, they will also browse, as well as eat forbs, fruit, and branches of trees, especially when they are thrown down by monkeys. Bucks, more than hinds, will stand on their hind legs on feed on tree foliage. Chital also eat their shed antlers as a source of nutrients, and will use mineral licks. Axis prefer to be near water and will drink in mornings and evenings in hot weather. Predators of the chital in Argentina are very scarce because it is an exotic species but we can mention fox and some big scavengers that attach the fawns in their early days. Hinds and fawns are more likely to be victims of predation than adult stags. The axis can run up to 40 mph (65 km/h) to escape its predators.
Axis deer most commonly occur in herds of 10 to 50 individuals of both sexes. Large dominant stags without velvet stay in the center of the herd and are surrounded by the females and their young. Smaller stags with velvet occupy the boundaries of the herd. Chital stags pay close attention when a stag of equal size to them enters their group. They will follow, graze with, and display to the newcomer. Sparring is more common between young stags, while older, larger stags prefer horning, pawing, and marking. Large stags with hard antlers are more likely to be well spaced out. Stags are known to stand on their hind legs and mark tree branches above.
The axis has a protracted breeding season due in part to the tropical climate, and births can occur throughout the year. For this reason, males do not have their antler cycles in synchrony and some females are fertile at all times of the year. Males sporting hard antlers are dominant over those in velvet or those without antlers, irrespective of their size and other factors. Stags commonly bellow during the rut. Axis hinds have three-week long estrous cycles. Chital courtship is based on tending bonds. A stag will follow and guard a hind in estrus. During this time, the stag will not eat. The pair will do several bouts of chasing and mutual licking before copulation. Hinds birth one fawn, rarely two, at a time Young fawns suckle longer than older fawns which suckle for 55 seconds. Hinds and fawns have loose bonds and it is common for them to get separated. However, because chital tend to stay close to each other, it is not difficult for a hind to find a fawn. Fawns sometimes gather in nurseries.
Chital are generally silent when grazing together. They do, though, make high-pitched chuckles when walking. When grazing, chital do a "courtesy posture" when they pass each other.The bellow of a chital stag exists in a primitive state of development compared to other deer like the red deer or elk. Its calls are one or several coarse bellows and loud growls, which may be weaker versions of the bellow. Bellowing coincides with rutting. Stags guarding estrous females will make high-pitched growls at lesser stags that hang about. Stags will also moan during aggressive displays or when resting. When alarmed, chital will bark. These barks usually occur among females and juveniles, and is repeated back and forth. Fawns separated from their mothers will squeal. When in danger, they run in groups. They will make bursts of high-speed running and then soon tire and dive into heavy cover to hide.
The blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) is an ungulate species of antelope native to the Indian subcontinent that has been classified as near threatened by IUCN since 2003, as its range has decreased sharply during the 20th century. The native population is stable, with an estimated 50,000 individuals as of 2001 but it is very abundant in countries like Argentina and South USA.
Blackbucks generally resemble gazelle, found on the Arabian peninsula. Blackbucks are slender with a head-to-body length of about 120 cm (47 in). They are about 73.7 to 83.8 cm (29.0 to 33.0 in) high at the shoulder. Males are larger than females. Adult males range in weight from 34 to 45 kg (75 to 99 lb); females weigh 31 to 39 kg (68 to 86 lb). The tail is short and compressed. Both sexes are white on the belly, around the eyes and on the inside of the legs. They differ in the coloration of the head and back. Female and young blackbucks are yellowish-fawn colored on the back and on the outside of the limbs; the lower parts are white. The two colors are sharply divided by a distinct pale lateral band. Old male bucks are blackish brown on the back, on the sides and front of the neck. They become almost black with age, only the nape remains brownish rufous, and the pale lateral band disappears. Only males have horns that are diverging, cylindrical, spiral, and ringed throughout. The rings are closer together near the skull. The turns of the spiral vary from less than 3 to 5. Horns are 45.6–68.5 cm (18.0–27.0 in) long.
Blackbucks generally live on open plains and open woodlands in herds of 5 to 50 animals with one dominant male. They are very fast. Speeds of more than 80 km/h (50 mph) have been recorded. They are primarily grazers and avoid forested areas. They require water every day and may move long distances in search of water and forage in summer. Usually, they feed during the day. Their diet consists mostly of grasses, but they have occasionally been observed browsing.
The maximum life span recorded is 16 years and the average is 12 years. They have very few predators in Argentina that why they expanded their population very quickly.
Brocket deer are the species of deer in the genus Mazama. They are medium to small in size, and are found in the Yucatán Peninsula, Central and South America, and the island of Trinidad. Most species are primarily found in forests. They are superficially similar to the African duikers and the Asian muntjacs, but unrelated. There are about ten species of brocket deer.
Depending on species, the brocket deer are small to medium-sized deer with stout bodies and large ears. The head-and-body length is 60–144 centimeters (24–57 in), the shoulder height is 35–80 centimeters (14–31 in) and they typically weigh 8–48 kilograms (18–106 lb.), though exceptionally large M. Americana have weighed as much as 65 kilograms (143 lb.). When present, the antlers are small, simple spikes. The pelage varies from reddish, to brown to gray. Very roughly, the species can be divided into four groups based on size, color and habitat (but not necessarily matching their phylogeny):
The one that matters for this description, the brown brocket deer, are found in forest, woodland and scrubland. They are medium-sized with a brownish to grayish pelage, and pale underparts.
In addition to being nocturnal and their small size, Mazama are shy and thus rarely observed. They are found living alone or in mated pairs within their own small territory, the boundaries usually marked with urine, feces, or secretions from the eye glands. When approached by predators (primarily the Cougar and the Jaguar), being knowledgeable about their territory, they will hide in nearby vegetation. As herbivores, their diet consists of leaves, fruits, and shoots found within their territory.
Mated pairs who live together remain monogamous. Single male deer will usually mate with nearby females. When males compete for a mate, they fight by biting and stabbing with their short horns. Brocket species that live in tropical areas have no fixed mating season, but those in temperate areas have a distinct rutting period in the autumn.
The gestation period is roughly 200–220 days and females only bear one fawn at a time. The young stay with the mother, keeping concealed until large enough to accompany her. They are normally weaned at about six months of age and reach sexual maturity after a year.
The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is the largest rodent in the world, followed by the beaver, porcupine, and mara. Its closest relatives are guinea pigs and rock cavies, and it is more distantly related to the agouti, chinchillas, and the coypu. Native to South America, the capybara inhabits savannas and dense forests and lives near bodies of water. It is a highly social species and can be found in groups as large as 100 individuals, but usually lives in groups of 10–20 individuals. The capybara is not a threatened species and is hunted for its meat, hide and also for a grease from its thick fatty skin which is used in the pharmaceutical trade.
The capybara has a heavy, barrel-shaped body and short head, with reddish-brown fur on the upper part of its body that turns yellowish-brown underneath. Its sweat glands can be found in the surface of the hairy portions of its skin, an unusual trait among rodents. The animal lacks under hair, and guard hair differs little from over hair. Adult capybaras grow to 107 to 134 cm (3.51 to 4.40 ft.) in length, stand 50 to 64 cm (20 to 25 in) tall at the withers, and typically weigh 35 to 66 kg (77 to 146 lb.), with an average in the Venezuelan llanos of 48.9 kg (108 lb.). The top recorded weights are 91 kg (201 lb.) for a wild female from Brazil and 73.5 kg (162 lb.) for a wild male from Uruguay. The dental formula is 1.1.0.01.1.3.3. Capybaras have slightly webbed feet and vestigial tails. Their hind legs are slightly longer than their forelegs; they have three toes on their rear feet and four toes on their front feet. Their muzzles are blunt, with nostrils, and the eyes and ears are near the top of their heads. Females are slightly heavier than males.
Capybaras are herbivores, grazing mainly on grasses and aquatic plants, as well as fruit and tree bark. They are very selective feeders and will feed on the leaves of one species and disregard other species surrounding it. They eat a greater variety of plants during the dry season, as fewer plants are available. While they eat grass during the wet season, they have to switch to more abundant reeds during the dry season. Plants that capybaras eat during the summer lose their nutritional value in the winter and therefore are not consumed at that time. The capybara's jaw hinge is not perpendicular and they thus chew food by grinding back-and-forth rather than side-to-side. Capybaras are coprophagous, meaning they eat their own feces as a source of bacterial gut flora, to help digest the cellulosein the grass that forms their normal diet, and to extract the maximum protein and vitamins from their food. They may also regurgitate food to masticate again, similar to cud-chewing by a cow. As is the case with other rodents, the front teeth of capybaras grow continually to compensate for the constant wear from eating grasses; their cheek teeth also grow continuously.
They can have a life span of 8–10 years on average, but live less than four years in the wild, as they are "a favourite food of jaguar, puma, ocelot, eagle and caiman". The capybara is also the preferred prey of the anaconda.
Capybara gestation is 130–150 days, and usually produces a litter of four capybara babies, but may produce between one and eight in a single litter. Birth is on land and the female will rejoin the group within a few hours of delivering the newborn capybaras, which will join the group as soon as they are mobile. Within a week, the young can eat grass, but will continue to suckle—from any female in the group—until weaned at about 16 weeks. The young will form a group within the main group.
Though quite agile on land (capable of running as fast as a horse), Capybaras are equally at home in the water. They are excellent swimmers, and can remain completely submerged for up to five minutes, an ability they use to evade predators. Capybaras can sleep in water if need be, only keeping their noses out of the water. During midday, as temperatures increase, they wallow in water and then graze in late afternoons and early evenings. They also spend a lot of time wallowing in mud. They rest around midnight and then continue to graze before dawn.
The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is a species of mammal in the family Tayassuidae. It is a widespread creature found throughout much of the tropical and subtropical Americas, ranging from the Southwestern United States to northern Argentina in South America.
The collared peccary stands around 510–610 millimeters (20–24 in) tall at the shoulder and about 1.0–1.5 m (3 ft. 3 in–4 ft. 11 in) long. It weighs between 16 and 27 kg (35 and 60 lb.).
Collared peccaries normally feed on fruits, roots, tubers, palm nuts, grasses, invertebrates, and small vertebrates. In areas inhabited by humans, they will also consume cultivated crop.
Collared peccaries are diurnal creatures that live in groups of one to 20 individuals, averaging between six and 9 members. They frequently sleep at night in burrows, often under the roots of trees. The collared peccary (javelina) are not totally diurnal. In central Arizona they are often active at night but less so during daytime.
Although they usually ignore humans, they will react if they feel threatened. They defend themselves with their long tusks, which can sharpen themselves whenever their mouths open or close. A collared peccary will also release a strong musk if it is alarmed.
The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. This common species is native to western Eurasia, but has been introduced widely elsewhere like Argentina.
The male fallow deer is known as a buck, the female is a doe, and the young a fawn. Adult bucks are 140–160 cm (55–63 in) long with a 85–95 cm (33–37 in) shoulder height, and typically 60–100 kg (130–220 lb.) in weight; does are 130–150 cm (51–59 in) long with a 75–85 cm (30–33 in) shoulder height, and 30–50 kg (66–110 lb.) in weight. The largest bucks may measure 190 cm (75 in) long and weigh 150 kg (330 lb.) Fawns are born in spring at about 30 cm (12 in) and weigh around 4.5 kg (9.9 lb.). The life span is around 12–16 years.
The species has great variations in the color of their coats, with four main variants, "common", "menil", melanistic and leucistic – a genuine color variety, not albinistic. The white is the lightest colored, almost white; common and menil are darker, and melanistic is very dark, sometimes even black.
- Common: Chestnut coat with white mottles that are most pronounced in summer with a much darker, unspotted coat in the winter. Light-colored area around the tail, edged with black. Tail is light with a black stripe.
- Menil: Spots more distinct than common in summer and no black around the rump patch or on the tail. In winter, spots still clear on a darker brown coat.
- Melanistic (black): All year black shading to greyish-brown. No light-colored tail patch or spots.
- Leucistic (white, but not albino): Fawns cream-colored, adults become pure white, especially in winter. Dark eyes and nose, no spots.
Most herds consist of the common coat variation, yet it is not rare to see animals of the menil coat variation. The Melanistic variation is rarer and white very much rarer still.
Only bucks have antlers, which are broad and shovel-shaped (palmate) from three years. In the first two years the antler is a single spike. They are grazing animals; their preferred habitat is mixed woodland and open grassland. During the rut bucks will spread out and females move between them, at this time of year fallow deer are relatively ungrouped compared to the rest of the year when they try to stay together in groups of up to 150.
Agile and fast in case of danger, fallow deer can run up to a maximum speed of 30 mph (48 km/h) over short distances (being naturally less muscular than other cervids such as roe deer, they are not as fast). Fallow deer can also make jumps up to 1.75 meters high and up to 5 meters in length.
Fallow deer was introduced in Argentina in the beginning of the XX Century for decoration purposes in the grounds of the elegant "Estancias" of that time.
It was brought to Buenos Aires province from Spain and other European countries and then they were taken to other areas like Santa Fe, La Pampa, Neuquén and so on.
In the present days there are big herds of them roaming around the Argentinean territory.
The Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) or common tahr is a large ungulate related to the wild goat and the only extant member of the genus Hemitragus. The Himalayan tahr is native to the Himalayas in southern Tibet, northern India, and Nepal. The Himalayan tahr has been introduced as an alien species to New Zealand and some parts of South America.
The Himalayan tahr has a small head, small pointed ears, large eyes, and horns that vary between males and females. Their horns reach a maximum length of 46 centimeters (18 in). Himalayan tahrs are sexually dimorphic, with females being smaller in weight and in size and having smaller horns. The horn is curved backwards, preventing injury during mating season when head butting is a common mating ritual among males. The average male tahr usually weighs around 73 kg with females averaging 36 kg and is shorter in height than in length. The exterior of a tahr is well adapted to the harsh climate of the Himalayans. They sport thick, reddish wool coats and thick undercoats, indicative of the conditions of their habitat. Their coats thin with the end of winter and becomes lighter in color. This shedding is presumably an adaptation that allows their internal body temperatures to adjust to the harsh temperatures of the Himalayan Mountains.
As a member of the ungulate group of mammals, the Himalayan tahr possesses an even number of toes. They have adapted the unique ability to grasp both smooth and rough surfaces that are typical of the mountainous terrain on which they reside. This useful characteristic also helps their mobility. The hooves of the tahr have a rubber-like core which allows for gripping smooth rocks while keratin at the rim of their hooves allow increased hoof durability, which is important for traversing the rocky ground. This adaptation allows for confident and swift maneuvering of the terrain.
The lifespan of a Himalayan tahr typically ranges around 14 or 15 years, with females living longer than males. The oldest known Himalayan tahr lived to 22 years old in captivity.
Tahrs are polygamous, and males are subject to stiff competition for access to females. Young reproductive males roam and mate opportunistically (when larger males are not present), while more mature males (more than four years old) will engage in ritualistic behavior and fighting to secure mates. During mating season, reproductive males lose much of their fat reserves, while females and non reproductive males do not, indicating a substantial cost to these behaviors. Factors that contribute to which males dominate include size, weight, and testosterone levels. Interestingly, coat color can have an effect; Himalayan tahrs with lighter coats are more likely to gain access to estrous females. Himalayan tahrs have precocious young which can stand soon after birth. Females have a gestation period of 180–242 days, usually with a litter size of only one kid. This indicates sexual selection can be extremely important to the fitness of males.
The herbivorous diets of the Himalayan tahrs leave them spending most of their time grazing on grasses and browsing on leaves and some fruits. Their short legs allow them to balance while reaching for the leaves of shrubs and small trees. The tahr consumes more woody plants than herb species with as much as 75% of the tahr diet consisting of natural grasses. The tahr, like most members of the bovid family, are ruminants and have complex digestive systems . A multi chambered stomach allows the tahr to repeatedly regurgitate its food, chew it, and obtain nutrients from otherwise indigestible plant tissues.
The mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis group) is a subspecies group of the wild sheep Ovis orientalis. Populations of O. orientaliscan be partitioned into the mouflons (orientalis group) and the urials (vignei group) The mouflon is thought to be one of the two ancestors for all modern domestic sheep breeds.
Mouflon have red-brown, short-haired coats with dark back-stripes and light-colored saddle patches. The males are horned; some females are horned, while others are polled. The horns of mature rams are curved in almost one full revolution (up to 85 cm). Mouflon have shoulder heights of about 0.9 m and body weights of 50 kg (males) and 35 kg (females). Their normal habitats are steep mountainous woods near tree lines. In winter, they migrate to lower altitudes
Today, mouflon inhabit the Caucasus, northern and eastern Iraq, and northwestern Iran. The range originally stretched further to Anatolia, the Crimean peninsula and the Balkans, where they had already disappeared 3,000 years ago. Mouflon were introduced to the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, Rhodes, and Cyprus during the neolithic period, perhaps as feral domesticated animals, where they have naturalized in the mountainous interiors of these islands over the past few thousand years, giving rise to the subspecies known as European mouflon (O. aries musimon).
In South America, mouflon have been introduced into central Chile and Argentina where they found a perfect habitat in the slopes of the Andes mountains and the forest of La Pampa province.
The Multihorn ram is a rare breed of small, white, polycerate (multi-horned) sheep. It is also known as Jacob Sheep. It may have from two to six horns, but most commonly have four that's why it is also named Four horn Ram. The most common color is white but there are some in black. Jacobs are usually raised for their wool, meat, and hides but in countries like Argentina and USA they are also appreciated trophies for big game hunting.
Generally referred to as an unimproved or heirloom breed (one that has survived with little human selection), the Multihorn ram is descended from an ancient Old World breed of sheep, although its exact origins remain unclear. Spotted polycerate sheep were documented in England by the mid–17th century, and were widespread a century later. Unlike most other old world breeds, the Jacobs of North America have not undergone extensive cross-breeding and selective breeding; their body habitus resembles that of a goat. Relative to their American counterparts, British Jacobs tend to be larger and heavier, and have lost many of their original characteristics through artificial selection.
The Jacob is a small, multi-horned sheep that resembles a goat in its conformation. However, it is not the only breed that can produce polycerate offsprings. Other polycerate breeds include the Hebridean, Icelandic, Manx Loaghtan, and the Navajo-Churro, and other piebald breeds include the Finnsheep and the West African Dwarf.
Mature rams (males) weigh about 120 to 180 pounds (54 to 82 kg), while ewes (females) weigh about 80 to 120 pounds (36 to 54 kg).The body frame is long, with a straight back and a rump that slopes toward the base of the tail. The rams have short scrotums free of wool which hold the testicles closer to the body than those of modern breeds, while the ewes have small udders free of wool that are also held closer to the body than those of modern breeds. The head is slender and triangular, and clear of wool forward of the horns and on the cheeks. The legs are medium-length, slender, free of wool below the knees, and preferably white with or without colored patches. The hooves are black or striped. It is not unusual for Multihorns to be cow-hocked. They provide a lean carcass with little external fat, with a high yield of meat compared to more improved breeds.
The most distinguishing features of the Jacob are their four horns, although they may have as few as two or as many as six. Both sexes are always horned, and the rams tend to have larger and more impressive horns. Two-horned rams typically have horizontal double-curled horns. Four-horned rams have two vertical center horns which may be two or more feet in length, and two smaller side horns, which grow down along the sides of the head. The horns on the ewe are smaller in diameter, shorter in length and appear more delicate than those of the ram.
The horns are normally black, but may be light brown. Ideally, horns are smooth and balanced, strongly attached to the skull, and grow in a way that does not impede the animal's sight or grazing abilities. Rams have larger horns than ewes. Four horn rams are typically hardy, low-maintenance animals with a naturally high resistance to parasites and hoof problems. They do not show much flocking behavior. They can be very skittish if not used to people or if they live in rough environments that's why the province of La Pampa or the mountains of Patagonia country are the perfect habitat for hunting purposes.
Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), is a species of deer that is currently extinct in the wild except in one area of the Argentinean Patagonia mountains. The rest of all known specimens are found only in captivity. This semiaquatic animal prefers marshland, and is native to the subtropics of China. It grazes mainly on grass and aquatic plants. It is the only extant member of the genus Elaphurus.
This species of deer was first made known to Western science in 1866 by Armand David (Père David), a French missionary working in China. He obtained the carcasses of an adult male, an adult female and a young male, and sent them to Paris, where the species was named Père David's Deer by Alphonse Milne-Edwards, a French biologist.
The species is sometimes known by its informal name sibuxiang (Chinese: 四不像; pinyin: sì bú xiàng; Japanese: shifuzō), literally meaning "four not alike", which could mean "the four unlike" or "like none of the four"; it is variously said that the four are cow, deer, donkey, horse (or) camel, and that the expression means in detail:
- "the hooves of a cow but not a cow, the neck of a camel but not a camel, antlers of a deer but not a deer, the tail of a donkey but not a donkey."
- "the nose of a cow but not a cow, the antlers of a deer but not a deer, the body of a donkey but not a donkey, tail of a horse but not a horse"
- "the tail of a donkey, the head of a horse, the hoofs of a cow, the antlers of a deer"
- "the neck of a camel, the hoofs of a cow, the tail of a donkey, the antlers of a deer"
- "the antlers of a deer, the head of a horse and the body of a cow"
The adult Père David's deer reaches a head-and-body length of up to 1.9–2.2 meters (6.2–7.2 ft.) and stands about 1.2 meters (3.9 ft.) tall at the shoulder. The tail is relatively long for a deer, measuring 50–66 centimeters (20–26 in) when straightened. Weight is between 135 and 200 kilograms (298 and 441 lb). The head is long and slender with large eyes, very large preorbital glands, a naked nose pad and small, pointed ears.
The branched antlers are unique in that the long tines point backward, while the main beam extends almost directly upward. There may be two pairs per year. The summer antlers are the larger set, and are dropped in November, after the summer rut. The second set—if they appear—are fully grown by January, and fall off a few weeks later.
The coat is reddish tan in the summer, changing to a dull gray in the winter. Long wavy guard hairs are present on the outer coat throughout the year, with the coat becoming woolier in winter. There is a mane on the neck and throat and a black dorsal stripe running along the cervico thoracic spine. The tail is about 50 centimeters (20 in) in length, with a dark tuft at the end. The hooves are large and spreading, and make clicking sounds (as in the reindeer) when the animal is moving.
The gestation period is about nine months, after which a single offspring is usually born; twins are born in rare cases. The juveniles (referred to as either fawns or calves) have a spotted coat, as is commonly seen in most species of deer. They reach sexual maturity at about 14 months. Historically, their main predators are believed to have been tigers and leopards. Despite no longer encountering ancestral predators, when experimentally exposed to images and stimuli relating to these big cats, the deer seemed to instinctively react with a cautious predator response typical of wild deer.
A semiaquatic animal, Père David's deer swims well, spending long periods standing in water up to its shoulders. Although predominantly a grazer, the deer supplements its grass diet with aquatic plants in the summer.
The puma (Puma concolor), also known as the mountain lion, cougar, painter, mountain cat or catamount, is a large cat of the family Felidae native to the Americas. Its range, from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes of South America, is the greatest of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere. An adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is found in most Americanhabitat types. It is the second heaviest cat in the New World, after the jaguar. Secretive and largely solitary by nature, the cougar is properly considered both nocturnal and crepuscular, although sightings during daylight hours do occur. The puma is more closely related to smaller felines, including the domestic cat (subfamily Felinae), than to any subspecies of lion (subfamily Pantherinae).
An excellent stalk-and-ambush predator, the cougar pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources include ungulates such as deer and wild sheep, as well as domestic cattle, horses and sheep, particularly in the northern part of its range. It will also hunt species as small as insects and rodents. This cat prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, but can also live in open areas. The cougar is territorial and survives at low population densities. Individual territory sizes depend on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not always the apex predator in its range, yielding to the jaguar, gray wolf, American black bear, andgrizzly bear. It is reclusive and mostly avoids people. Fatal attacks on humans are rare, but have been trending upward in recent years as more people enter their territory.
Cougars are slender and agile members of the cat family. They are the fourth-largest cat; adults stand about 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in) tall at the shoulders. Adult males are around 2.4 m (7.9 ft) long nose-to-tail and females average 2.05 m (6.7 ft), with overall ranges between 1.5 to 2.75 m (4.9 to 9.0 ft) nose to tail suggested for the species in general. Of this length, 63 to 95 cm (25 to 37 in) is comprised by the tail. Males typically weigh 53 to 100 kg (115 to 220 lb), averaging 62 kg (137 lb). Females typically weigh between 29 and 64 kg (64 and 141 lb.), averaging 42 kg (93 lb.). Puma size is smallest close to the equator, and larger towards the poles. The largest recorded puma, shot in Arizona, weighed 125.5 kg (276 lb.) after its intestines were removed, indicating in life it could have weighed nearly 136.2 kg (300 lb.). Several male cougars in British Columbia weighed between 86.4 and 95.5 kg (190 to 210 lb.). The average weigh of mature puma male in Argentina is about of 60 kg.
The head of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its powerful forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold large prey. It has five retractable claws on its forepaws (one a dewclaw) and four on its hind paws. The larger front feet and claws are adaptations to clutching prey.
Cougar coloring is plain (hence the Latin concolor) but can vary greatly between individuals and even between siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, including the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are spotted and born with blue eyes and rings on their tails; juveniles are pale, and dark spots remain on their flanks. Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black coloring (melanism) has never been documented in cougars.
Females reach sexual maturity between one-and-a-half to three years of age. They typically average one litter every two to three years throughout their reproductive lives, though the period can be as short as one year. Females are in estrus for about 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period is approximately 91 days. Females are sometimes reported as monogamous, but this is uncertain and polygyny may be more common. Copulation is brief but frequent. Chronic stress can result in low reproductive rates when in captivity as well as in the field.
Life expectancy in the wild is reported at eight to 13 years, and probably averages eight to 10 years.
The origins of the breed are uncertain. It was developed on the Anglo-Scottish border.
Several types of Scottish Blackface have developed over the years, but the most common are the Perth variety, which is large framed, with a longer coat, and mainly found in north-east Scotland, Devon, Cornwall and Northern Ireland, and the medium-framed Lanark type, with shorter wool, commonly found in Scotland and Ireland.
The introduction of Black Faced Highland sheep to America first occurred in June, 1861.
Blackface ewes are excellent mothers and will often attempt to defend their lambs against predators that's why they made it in the rough environments of the brushy area of La Pampa and the mountains of Patagonia, Argentina where pumas have included them in their normal diet.
The blackface male is highly appreciated among the hunters due to the big horns that rams develop.
The Texas Dall Ram Ovis dalli, is a species of sheep native to northwestern North America, ranging from white to slate brown in color and having curved yellowish brown horns. Its closest relative is the more southern subspecies, Stone sheep (also spelled Stone's sheep) (Ovis dalli stonei), which is a slate brown with some white patches on the rump and inside the hind legs.
Research has shown the use of these subspecies designations is questionable. In the case of the Argentinean Texas Dall ram there is an evident crossbreed between the American dall and the Spanish feral ram.
The latter half of the Latin name dalli is derived from William Healey Dall (1845–1927), an American naturalist.
The sheep inhabit the subarctic mountain ranges of Alaska, the Yukon Territory, the Mackenzie Mountains in the western Northwest Territories, and central and northern British Columbia. Dall sheep are found in relatively dry country and try to stay in a special combination of open alpine ridges, meadows, and steep slopes with extremely rugged ground in the immediate vicinity, to allow escape from predators that cannot travel quickly through such terrain. They were successfully introduced in Argentina in the mountains of Patagonia region and the bush of La Pampa province.
Male Dall sheep have thick curling horns. The females have shorter, more slender, slightly curved horns or not horns at all. Males live in bands which seldom associate with female groups except during the mating season in late April and May.
During the summer when food is abundant, the sheep eat a wide variety of plants. The winter diet is much more limited, and consists primarily of dry, frozen grass and sedge stems available when snow is blown off, lichen and moss. Many Texas Dall sheep populations visit mineral licks during the spring, and often travel many miles to eat the soil around the licks.
The water buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a large bovid found on the Indian subcontinent to Vietnam and Peninsular Malaysia, in Sri Lanka, in Luzon Island in the Philippines, and in Borneo.
The large feral population of northern Australia became established in the late 19th century, and there are smaller feral herds in New Guinea, Tunisia and northeastern Argentina.
The skin of river buffaloes is black, but some specimens may have dark slate-colored skin. Swamp buffaloes have a grey skin at birth but become slate blue later. Albinoids are present in some populations. River buffaloes have comparatively longer faces, smaller girth and bigger limbs than swamp buffaloes. The dorsal ridge extends further back and tapers off more gradually. Their horns grow downward and backward, then curve upward in a spiral. Swamp buffaloes are heavy-bodied and stockily built, the body is short and the belly large. The forehead is flat, the eyes prominent, the face short and the muzzle wide. The neck is comparatively long, the withers and croup are prominent. A dorsal ridge extends backward and ends abruptly just before the end of the chest. Their horns grow outward, and curve in a semicircle, but always remain more or less on the plane of the forehead. The tail is short, reaching only to the hocks. Height at withers is 129–133 cm (51–52 in) for males, and 120–127 cm (47–50 in) for females. They range in weight from 300–550 kg (660–1,210 lb), but weights of over 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) have also been observed.
The rumen of the water buffalo has important differences from that of other ruminants. It contains a larger population of bacteria, particularly the cellulolytic bacteria, lower protozoa and higher fungi zoospores. In addition, higher rumen ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and higher pH have been found as compared to those in cattle.
Water buffalo were introduced into the Amazon River basin in 1895. They are now extensively used there for meat and dairy production. In 2005, the buffalo herd in the Brazilian Amazon stood at approximately 1.6 million head, of which approximately 460,000 were located in the lower Amazon floodplain. In Argentina, many game ranches raise water buffalo for commercial hunting. Breeds used include Mediterranean from Italy, Murrah and Jafarabadi from India, and Carabao from the Philippines.
The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), is a hog-like animal[vague] found in Central and South America. It roams in dense, humid, tropical rainforests and can also be found in drier savannas. It lives in herds of 20–300 individuals that on average take up about 120 km2 to fully function. This species is omnivorous, feeding mostly on fruit, and are usually found traveling great distances to obtain it. If this resource is in demand and difficult to find, peccaries will eat leaves, stems, or animal parts. White-lipped peccaries have several unique attributes that allow them to stay with and identify their herd, which is essential for their survival in the wild.
The white-lipped peccary lives to be an average of 13 years old and can give birth to two young at a time. The head and body length ranges from 90–139 cm, the shoulder height is between 40 and 60 cm, the tail length is from 3–6 cm, and the adult weight is 25–40 kg. Their color is generally brown or black. The coat is bristly and has hairs running lengthways down the spine growing longer than the hairs running down the body, making a crest, which stands up when the peccary becomes excited. The peccary has a round body with a long snout that ends in a circular disk where the nasal cavity starts. They have white markings that start below the snout and run to the cheek area just below the eyes.
White-lipped peccaries are omnivores feeding on fruits, nuts, vegetation, and small amounts of animal matter. Their main predators are the jaguar, puma, and potentially boa constrictors.
The white-lipped peccary is a diurnal feeder, and performs all of its activities during the day, more specifically in the mornings and afternoons. They are the only large neotropical mammal found in large herds. Often, peccaries can be smelled before seen because they give off a skunk-like odor. They are known to be aggressive when cornered or feel threatened. They give off a loud “bark” and show off their teeth in an attempt to avoid conflict.
White-lipped peccaries have a scent gland on their backs, which emits a scent, allowing a strong bond between members of the herd. They are a good indicator of how healthy the forest is because they live in such large herds and in large area.
Wild boar or Russian Boar (Sus scrofa) is a species of the pig genus Sus, part of the biological family Suidae. The species includes many subspecies. It is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig, an animal with which it freely hybridises. Wild boar are native across much of Northern and Central Europe, the Mediterranean region (including North Africa's Atlas Mountains) and much of Asia, including Japan and as far south as Indonesia. Populations have also been artificially introduced in some parts of the world, most notably the Americas and Australasia, where they are regarded as both an important food resource and an environmental threat. Elsewhere, such as England, populations have also become established after escapes of wild boar from captivity. They are specially abundant in the province of La Pampa, Argentina.
The body of the wild boar is compact; the head is large, the legs relatively short. The fur consists of stiff bristles and usually finer fur. The color usually varies from dark grey to black or brown, but there are great regional differences in color; even whitish animals are known from central Asia. During winter the fur is much thicker.
The wild boar is quite a variably sized mammal. In exceptionally large specimens, the species can rival the size of the giant forest hog, the largest extant species of wild suid. Adult boars can measure from 90 to 200 cm (35 to 79 in) in length, not counting a tail of 15 to 40 cm (5.9 to 15.7 in), and have a shoulder height of 55 to 110 cm (22 to 43 in). As a whole, their average weight is 50–90 kg (110–200 pounds), though boars show a great deal of weight variation within their geographical ranges. Carpathian boars have been recorded to reach weights of 200 kg (441 lb). Romanian and Russian boars can reach weights of 300 kg (661 lb.), while unconfirmed giants reported in early Russian hunting journals have reportedly weighed up to 320 kg (710 lb.).
Adult males develop tusks, continuously growing teeth that protrude from the mouth, from their upper and lower canine teeth. These serve as weapons and tools. The upper tusks are bent upwards in males, and are regularly ground against the lower ones to produce sharp edges. The tusks normally measure about 6 cm (2.4 in), in exceptional cases even 12 cm (4.7 in). Females also have sharp canines, but they are smaller, and not protruding like the males' tusks. Tigers hunt boars, but avoid tackling mature male boars. In many cases, boars have gored tigers to death in self -defense. Wild boars can be dangerous to humans, especially when they have piglets.
Wild boar piglets are colored differently from adults, having marbled chocolate and cream stripes lengthwise over their bodies. The stripes fade by the time the piglet is about 6 months old, when the animal takes on the adult's grizzled grey or brown color
Adult males are usually solitary outside of the breeding season, but females and their offspring (both sub-adult males and females) live in groups called sounders. Sounders typically number around 20 animals, although groups of over 50 have been seen, and will consist of 2 to 3 sows; one of which will be the dominant female. Group structure changes with the coming and going of farrowing females, the migration of maturing males (usually when they reach around 20 months) and the arrival of unrelated sexually active males.
Wild boar have crepuscular or nocturnal habits, foraging in early morning and late afternoon or at night, but resting for periods during both night and day. They are omnivorous scavengers, eating almost anything they come across, including grass, nuts, berries, carrion, nests of ground nesting birds, roots, tubers, refuse insects and small reptiles. Wild boar in Argentina are also known to be predators of several smaller species.
The bovid known as the Wild Goat was the progenitor of the Domestic Goat, although domestic goats have probably been hybridized with other wild goat species in Asia. Wild Goats are found in western Asia and some islands of Europe They live in rocky habitats associated with cliffs from sea level to around 4000 m (but usually below 2500 m). Although in Daghestan they inhabit some mountain forests, in general Wild Goats are associated with deserts and semi-arid areas. Both sexes have horns, but on males these are much larger, curving up and backwards. Wild Goats are diurnal, feeding in the early morning and late afternoon during warm weather. In areas with large populations, herds may include 100 to 200 animals. During the dry season, large congregations can occur near watering sites.
Wild Goats occur in disjunctive populations throughout their range. They have been extirpated from Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria and their status in Iraq and Afghanistan is unknown. Over most of their distribution, viable populations rarely occur outside protected areas. Major threats to Wild Goat populations include habitat deterioration due to use by livestock, hunting, and predation by feral and domestic dogs.
Domestic Goats are sometimes referred to as Capra aegagrus hircus, but Valdez (2011) treats the Domestic Goat as a distinct species, Capra hircus. Feral Domestic Goats have a far wider distribution around the world than do true Wild Goats. The endemic goats on Crete and nearby islands, which are often referred to as C. aegagrus cretica, look similar to wild C, aegagrus, but genetic analyses have indicated that in fact they are actually, as some researchers have suspected, feral domestic goats descended from a very early introduction (Bar-Gal et al. 2002; Masseti 2009).
This species was introduced in Argentina by Spanish conquerors long time ago when they set the route of the gold to the Alto Peru in the middle XVI century but these animals spread out when the native people destroyed the Spanish settlements along that route. Goats are now available in the mountains of Buenos Aires province (Sierra de la Ventana), the bush of La Pampa and Santiago del Estero and the mountains of Patagonia. Feral goat hunting usually requires long walks in the mountains and pretty long shots.